Visa Oshwal Community

Jain Phrases:

 

Navkar Mantra

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Ṇamōkāra mantra (Sanskrit: णमोकार मंत्र, Tamil: ஐவர் வணக்கம்), also variously referred to as the Navakār Mantra or the Namaskār Mantra or the Pancha Parameshti Namaskār, is the most important mantra used in Jainism.[1] While reciting this mantra, the devotee bows with respect to humans who have cleared their gathi karmas (arihants), fully liberated souls (siddhas), spiritual leaders (acharyas), teachers (upajjhayas) and monks.

In this prayer there is no mention of any names, including that of the Tirthankaras. Jains do not ask for any favors or material benefits from the Tirthankaras or from sadhus and sadhvis. This mantra simply serves as a gesture of deep respect towards beings they believe are more spiritually advanced and to remind followers of the Jain religion of their ultimate goal of nirvana or moksa.[2]

Digambaras and Sthanakvasis regard the first five lines as the main mantra, the following two lines are explanatory.

The Ṇamōkāra Mantra

Ṇamō arihantāṇaṁI bow to the arihants[5].
Ṇamō siddhāṇaṁI bow to the siddhas.
Ṇamō āyariyāṇaṁI bow to the acharyas.
Ṇamō uvajjhāyāṇaṁI bow to the teachers.
Ṇamō lōē savva sāhūṇaṁI bow to all the saddhus.
Ēsōpan̄caṇamōkkārō, savvapāvappaṇāsaṇō
Maṅgalā ṇaṁ ca savvēsiṁ, paḍamama havaī maṅgalaṁ
This five-fold bow (mantra) destroys all sins and obstacles
and of all auspicious mantras, is the first and foremost one.

 

Paryushana

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Paryushana (or Paryusan) is one of the two most important festivals for the Jains, the other being Diwali. Normally Svetambara Jains refer it as Paryushana, while Digambara Jains refer it as Daslakshana. Paryushan means, literally, "abiding" or "coming together".It is belived that all the devas do Ashtprakari Puja of Tirthankara and it takes them 8 days to do this ashtaprakari puja. this is called Ashtanhika Mahotsav, so at the very same time Jains celebrate it as Paryushan. It is also a time when the laity take on vows of study and fasting with a spiritual intensity similar to temporary monasticism.[1][2] The duration of Paryusana is for 8 or 10 days and comes at the time when the wandering monks take up temporary residence for four months of monsoon. In popular terminology, this stay is termed chaturmasa because the rainy season is regarded to be about four months. For this minimum duration, Paryushana must be initiated by Panchami (fifth day) of the Shukla Paksha phase of the Bhadrapada month. In the scriptures it is described that Lord Mahavira used to start Paryushana on Bhadrapada pak sha panchami. After Mahavir, nearly 150 years Jain Samvatsari was shifted to Chaturthi (4th day of Bhadrapada of Shukla phase. Since 2200 years Jains follows Chaturthi.

The date for the Paryushana festival is thus Bhadrapada Shukla Chaturthi for both major sects. Because of computational and other differences, there can be some minor differences among various subsects. Recently there has been an attempt to standardize the date. Because at this time the monks have settled in the town for a longer duration, it is time for the householders to have an annual renewal of the faith by listening to the statement of the Dharma and by meditation and vratas (self-control). In the Digambaras, it is done by starting a 10-day period from Paryushana (Bhadrapada Shukla panchami) during which the dashalakshana vrata is undertaken. In the Shvetambaras an 8-day festival is celebrated that ends with Bhadrapada Shukla chaturthi. The last day is called Samvatsari, short for Samvatsari Pratikramana.

During the 8-day festival, the Kalpa Sutra is recited in the Swetmbara sect, that includes a recitation of the section on birth of Lord Mahavira on the fifth day.[2] In the Digambara sect the Tatvartha-sutra of Umaswati is recited. On the dashami, the sugandha-dashami vrata occurs. The Digambaras celebrate Ananta-chaturdashi on the chaturdashi, special worship is done on this day. Many towns have a procession leading to the main temple.

The original Prakrit (ardhamagadhi) term for Paryushana is "Pajjo-savana". In case of Jain terms, the Prakrit forms of the words are the original.

 

Pratikramana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pratikraman (literally Sanskrit "introspection"), is a process of repentance of sins (prayaschit) during which Jains repent for their wrongdoings during their daily life, and remind themselves to refrain from doing so again. Devout Jains often do Pratikraman at least twice a day. In same one practices self-observation and emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation

There are five types of Pratikraman:

  1. Devasi
  2. Rayi
  3. Pakhi
  4. Chaumasi
  5. Samvatsari

 

Micchami Dukkadam

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Michchhāmi Dukkaḍaṃ is an ancient Prakrit phrase literally meaning — may all the evil that has been done be fruitless.[1] It is especially used on the Kshamavani Diwas or Forgiveness Day, celebrated on Samvatsari, the concluding day of the eight or ten day Paryushana festival, one of the main festivals of the Jain community. On this day, Jains request forgiveness from each other for all offences committed.[2][3] The phrase is also used when a person makes a mistake, or recollects making one in everyday life, or when asking for forgiveness in advance for inadvertent ones. [4]

 

Mahavir Jayanti

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In Jainism, Mahavir Jayanti, also known as Mahavir Janma Kalyanak, is the most important religious holiday.[3] It celebrates the birth of Mahavira, the last Tirthankara. On the Gregorian calendar, the holiday occurs either in March or April.[4]

He was born on the thirteenth day of the rising moon of Chaitra. The chronology accepted by all Jains places Mahavir's birth in 599 BCE.[5]

Birth Legend

Mahavira was born into royalty as the son of King Siddhartha and Queen Trishala. During pregnancy, Trishala was believed to had a number of auspicious dreams, all signifying the coming of a great leader. The exact number of dreams differs according to the school of Jainism; Svetambaras generally believe that the actual number is fourteen while Digambaras claim sixteen instead. Regardless, the astrologers that interpreted these dreams claimed that the child would become either an emperor or a Tirthankar. It is said that when Trishala finally gave birth to Mahavira, the god-king Indra bathed the newborn himself with celestial milk, a ritual essentially marking him as a Tirthankar.

Celebrations

Local statues of Mahavira are given a ceremonial bath called the abhisheka. During the day, many Jains engage in some sort of charitable act in the name of Mahavira while others travel to temples to meditate and offer prayers. Lectures are typically held in temples to preach the path of virtue as defined by Jain doctrine. Donations are collected in order to promote charitable missions like saving cows from slaughter or helping to feed poor people. Ancient Jain temples across India typically see an extremely high volume of practitioners come to pay their respects and join in the celebrations.

 

Diwali

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Diwali (also spelled Devali in certain regions) or Deepavali,[note 1] popularly known as the "festival of lights," is a festival celebrated between mid-October and mid-December for different reasons.[1] For Hindus, Diwali is one of the most important festivals of the year and is celebrated in families by performing traditional activities together in their homes. For Jains, Diwali marks the attainment of moksha or nirvana by Mahavira in 527 BCE.[2][3]

 

Diwali is an official holiday in India,[4] Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Mauritius, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago, Suriname, Malaysia, Singapore, and Fiji.

 

The name "Diwali" is a contraction of "Deepavali" (Sanskrit: दीपावली Dīpāvalī), which translates into "row of lamps".[5] Diwali involves the lighting of small clay lamps (dīpa in Sanskrit: दीप) filled with oil to signify the triumph of good over evil.[6] These lamps are kept on during the night and one's house is cleaned, both done in order to make the goddess Lakshmi feel welcome.[7] Firecrackers are burst in order to drive away evil spirits.[8][9][10] During Diwali, all the celebrants wear new clothes and share sweets and snacks with family members and friends.

 

Diwali commemorates the return of Lord Rama, along with Sita and Lakshmana, from his 14-year-long exile and vanquishing the demon-king Ravana. In joyous celebration of the return of their king, the people of Ayodhya, the Capital of Rama, illuminated the kingdom with earthen diyas and by bursting firecrackers.[11]

 

The festival starts with Dhanteras on which most Indian business communities begin their financial year. The second day of the festival, Naraka Chaturdasi, marks the vanquishing of the demon Naraka by Lord Krishna and his wife Satyabhama. Amavasya, the third day of Diwali, marks the worship of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth in her most benevolent mood, fulfilling the wishes of her devotees. Amavasya also tells the story of Lord Vishnu, who in his dwarf incarnation vanquished the Bali, and banished him to Patala. It is on the fourth day of Diwali, Kartika Shudda Padyami, that Bali went to patala and took the reins of his new kingdom in there. The fifth day is referred to as Yama Dvitiya (also called Bhai Dooj), and on this day sisters invite their brothers to their homes.

Darśana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Darshan)

Darśana or Darshan (Sanskrit: दर्शन) is a Sanskrit term meaning "sight" (in the sense of an instance of seeing or beholding; from a root dṛś "to see"), vision, apparition, or glimpse. It is most commonly used for "visions of the divine" in Hindu worship, e.g. of a deity (especially in image form), or a very holy person or artifact. One could "receive" darshana or blessing of the deity in the temple, or from a great saintly person, such as a great guru.[1]

In the sense "to see with reverence and devotion," the term translates to hierophany, and could refer either to a vision of the divine or to being in the presence of a highly revered person. In this sense it may assume a meaning closer to audience. "By doing darshan properly a devotee develops affection for God, and God develops affection for that devotee."

Darshan is ultimately difficult to define since it is an event in consciousness—an interaction in presence between devotee and guru; or between devotee and image or sculpture, which focuses and calls out the consciousness of the devotee. In either event, a heightening of consciousness or spirituality is the intended effect.


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